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Date and time functions return or operate on dates, times, or timestamps.

Parse and format Date/Time functions use the convention established within the java.text.SimpleDateFormat class to define the formats you can use with these functions. You can learn more about how this class defines formats by visiting the Javadocs for SimpleDateFormat.

Function Definition Datatype Constraint
CURDATE() Return current date returns date
CURTIME() Return current time returns time
NOW() Return current timestamp (date and time) returns timestamp
DAYNAME(x) Return name of day in the default locale x in {date, timestamp}, returns string
DAYOFMONTH(x) Return day of month x in {date, timestamp}, returns integer
DAYOFWEEK(x) Return day of week (Sunday=1, see also System Properties for customization) x in {date, timestamp}, returns integer
DAYOFYEAR(x) Return Julian day number x in {date, timestamp}, returns integer
EXTRACT(YEAR|MONTH|DAY|HOUR|MINUTE|SECOND FROM x) Return the given field value from the date value x. Produces the same result as the assoceated YEAR, MONTH, DAYOFMONTH, HOUR, MINUTE, SECOND functions.The SQL specification also allows for TIMEZONE_HOUR and TIMEZONE_MINUTE as extraction targets. In Teiid all date values are in the timezone of the server. x in {date, time, timestamp}, returns integer
FORMATDATE(x, y) Format date x using format y x is date, y is string, returns string
FORMATTIME(x, y) Format time x using format y x is time, y is string, returns string
FORMATTIMESTAMP(x, y) Format timestamp x using format y x is timestamp, y is string, returns string
FROM_UNIXTIME (unix_timestamp) Return the Unix timestamp (in seconds) as a Timestamp value Unix timestamp (in seconds)
HOUR(x) Return hour (in military 24-hour format) x in {time, timestamp}, returns integer
MINUTE(x) Return minute x in {time, timestamp}, returns integer
MODIFYTIMEZONE (timestamp, startTimeZone, endTimeZone) Returns a timestamp based upon the incoming timestamp adjusted for the differential between the start and end time zones.  i.e. if the server is in GMT-6, then modifytimezone({ts '2006-01-10 04:00:00.0'},'GMT-7', 'GMT-8') will return the timestamp {ts '2006-01-10 05:00:00.0'} as read in GMT-6.  The value has been adjusted 1 hour ahead to compensate for the difference between GMT-7 and GMT-8. startTimeZone and endTimeZone are strings, returns a timestamp
MODIFYTIMEZONE (timestamp, endTimeZone) Return a timestamp in the same manner as modifytimezone(timestamp, startTimeZone, endTimeZone), but will assume that the startTimeZone is the same as the server process. Timestamp is a timestamp; endTimeZone is a string, returns a timestamp
MONTH(x) Return month x in {date, timestamp}, returns integer
MONTHNAME(x) Return name of month in the default locale x in {date, timestamp}, returns string
PARSEDATE(x, y) Parse date from x using format y x, y in {string}, returns date
PARSETIME(x, y) Parse time from x using format y x, y in {string}, returns time
PARSETIMESTAMP(x,y) Parse timestamp from x using format y x, y in {string}, returns timestamp
QUARTER(x) Return quarter x in {date, timestamp}, returns integer
SECOND(x) Return seconds x in {time, timestamp}, returns integer
TIMESTAMPCREATE(date, time) Create a timestamp from a date and time date in {date}, time in {time}, returns timestamp
WEEK(x) Return week in year x in {date, timestamp}, returns integer
YEAR(x) Return four-digit year x in {date, timestamp}, returns integer

Timestampadd/Timestampdiff

Timestampadd

Add a specified interval amount to the timestamp.

count is an integer and the return value is a timestamp. Intervals can be one of the following keywords:# SQL_TSI_FRAC_SECOND - fractional seconds (billionths of a second)

  1. SQL_TSI_SECOND - seconds
  2. SQL_TSI_MINUTE - minutes
  3. SQL_TSI_HOUR - hours
  4. SQL_TSI_DAY - days
  5. SQL_TSI_WEEK - weeks using Sunday as the first day
  6. SQL_TSI_MONTH - months
  7. SQL_TSI_QUARTER - quarters (3 months) where the first quarter is months 1-3, etc.
  8. SQL_TSI_YEAR - years

The full interval amount based upon calendar fields will be added. For example adding 1 QUARTER will move the timestamp up by three full months and not just to the start of the next calendar quarter.

Timestampdiff

Calculates the number of date part intervals crossed between the two timestamps.

Interval can be one of the same keywords as used by timestampadd; startTime, endTime are timestamps and the return value is a long.

If (endTime > startTime), a non-negative number will be returned. If (endTime < startTime), a non-positive number will be returned. The date part difference difference is counted regardless of how close the timestamps are. For example, '2000-01-02 00:00:00.0' is still considered 1 hour ahead of '2000-01-01 23:59:59.999999'.

Compatibility Issues
  • Timestampdiff typically returns an integer, however Teiid's version returns a long. You may receive an exception if you expect a value out of the integer range from a pushed down timestampdiff.
  • Teiid's implementation of timestamp diff in 8.2 and prior versions returned values based upon the number of whole canonical interval approximations (365 days in a year, 91 days in a quarter, 30 days in a month, etc.) crossed. For example the difference in months between 2013-03-24 and 2013-04-01 was 0, but based upon the date parts crossed is 1. See System Properties for backwards compatibility.

Parsing Date Datatypes from Strings

Teiid does not implicitly convert strings that contain dates presented in different formats, such as ‘19970101’ and ‘31/1/1996’ to date-related datatypes. You can, however, use the parseDate, parseTime, and parseTimestamp functions, described in the next section, to explicitly convert strings with a different format to the appropriate datatype. These functions use the convention established within the java.text.SimpleDateFormat class to define the formats you can use with these functions. You can learn more about how this class defines date and time string formats by visiting the Javadocs for SimpleDateFormat. Note that the format strings will be locale specific to your Java default locale.

For example, you could use these function calls, with the formatting string that adheres to the java.text.SimpleDateFormat convention, to parse strings and return the datatype you need:

String Function Call To Parse String
'1997010' parseDate(myDateString, 'yyyyMMdd')
'31/1/1996' parseDate(myDateString, 'dd''/''MM''/''yyyy')
'22:08:56 CST' parseTime (myTime, 'HH:mm:ss z')
'03.24.2003 at 06:14:32' parseTimestamp(myTimestamp, 'MM.dd.yyyy ''at'' hh:mm:ss')

Specifying Time Zones

Time zones can be specified in several formats. Common abbreviations such as EST for "Eastern Standard Time" are allowed but discouraged, as they can be ambiguous. Unambiguous time zones are defined in the form continent or ocean/largest city. For example, America/New_York, America/Buenos_Aires, or Europe/London. Additionally, you can specify a custom time zone by GMT offset: GMT[+/-]HH:MM.

For example: GMT-05:00

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