This guide discusses the process of bootstrapping a Hibernate org.hibernate.SessionFactory. It also discusses the ways in which applications and integrators can hook-in to and affect that process. This bootstrapping process is defined in 2 distinct steps. The first step is the building of a ServiceRegistry holding the services Hibernate will need at bootstrap- and run-time. The second step is the building of a Metadata object representing the mapping information for the application’s model and its mapping to the database.

Prior to version 5.0 applications bootstrapped a SessionFactory is via the org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration object. That approach is still supported in a slightly limited manner. See the Legacy Bootstrapping guide for details.

Building the ServiceRegistry

Actually we are concerned with building 2 different ServiceRegistries:

  • org.hibernate.boot.registry.BootstrapServiceRegistry

  • org.hibernate.boot.registry.StandardServiceRegistry

Each of these is built from a builder, org.hibernate.boot.registry.BootstrapServiceRegistryBuilder and org.hibernate.boot.registry.StandardServiceRegistryBuilder respectively.

For more information on ServiceRegistries in general, see the Services and Registries guide.


The BootstrapServiceRegistry is intended to hold services that Hibernate needs at both bootstrap and run time. This boils down to 3 services:

  • ClassLoaderService - which controls how Hibernate interacts with ClassLoaders

  • IntegratorService - which controls the management ands discovery of org.hibernate.integrator.spi.Integrator instances.

  • StrategySelector - which control how Hibernate resolves implementations of various strategy contracts. This is a very powerful service, but a full discussion of it is beyond the scope of this guide.

If you are ok with the default behavior of Hibernate in regards to these BootstrapServiceRegistry services (which is quite often the case, especially in SE environments) building the BootstrapServiceRegistry can be skipped. If you wish to alter how the BootstrapServiceRegistry is built, you would use the BootstrapServiceRegistryBuilder:

Example 1. Building a BootstrapServiceRegistry
    BootstrapServiceRegistryBuilder bootstrapRegistryBuilder
            = new BootstrapServiceRegistryBuilder();
    // add a special ClassLoader
    bootstrapRegistryBuilder.applyClassLoader( mySpecialClassLoader );
    // manually add an Integrator
    bootstrapRegistryBuilder.applyIntegrator( mySpecialIntegrator );

    BootstrapServiceRegistry bootstrapRegistry =;

The services of the BootstrapServiceRegistry cannot be extended (added to) nor overridden (replaced).


The services of the StandardServiceRegistry may be extended and overridden.

A StandardServiceRegistry is built through the StandardServiceRegistryBuilder which can be constructed in one of 2 ways:

Example 2. Building a StandardServiceRegistryBuilder with a supplied BootstrapServiceRegistry
    BootstrapServiceRegistry bootstrapRegistry = ...;
    StandardServiceRegistryBuilder standardRegistryBuilder
            = new StandardServiceRegistryBuilder( bootstrapRegistry );
Example 3. Building a StandardServiceRegistryBuilder without a supplied BootstrapServiceRegistry
    StandardServiceRegistryBuilder standardRegistryBuilder
            = new StandardServiceRegistryBuilder();

The second form will create a BootstrapServiceRegistry on the fly with default behavior.

A StandardServiceRegistry is also highly configurable via the StandardServiceRegistryBuilder API. See the StandardServiceRegistryBuilder javadocs for full details. Some specific methods of interest:

Example 4. Configuring StandardServiceRegistryBuilder
    StandardServiceRegistryBuilder standardRegistryBuilder = ...;
    // load some properties via resource lookup
    standardRegistryBuilder.loadProperties( "org/hibernate/example/" );
    // configure the registry from a resource lookup for a cfg.xml config file
    standardRegistryBuilder.configure( "org/hibernate/example/MyCfg.xml" );
    // apply a random setting
    standardRegistryBuilder.applySetting( "myProp", "some value" );
    // apply a service initiator
    standardRegistryBuilder.addInitiator( new CustomServiceInitiator() );
    // apply a service impl
    standardRegistryBuilder.addService( SomeCustomService.class, new SomeCustomServiceImpl() );

    // and finally build the StandardServiceRegistry
    StandardServiceRegistry standardRegistry =;

Building the Metadata

The org.hibernate.boot.Metadata object contains the parsed representations of an application’s domain model and its mapping to a database. The first thing we obviously need to build a parsed representation is the source information to be parsed (annotated classes, hbm.xml files, orm.xml files). This is the purpose of org.hibernate.boot.MetadataSources.

Example 5. Configuring a MetadataSources
    MetadataSources sources = new MetadataSources( standardRegistry );
    // alternatively, we can build the MetadataSources without passing
    // a service registry, in which case it will build a default
    // BootstrapServiceRegistry to use
    // MetadataSources sources = new MetadataSources();

	// add a class using JPA/Hibernate annotations for mapping
    sources.addAnnotatedClass( MyEntity.class );

	// add the name of a class using JPA/Hibernate annotations for mapping.
	// differs from above in that accessing the Class is deferred which is
	// important if using runtime bytecode-enhancement
    sources.addAnnotatedClassName( "org.hibernate.example.Customer" );

    // Adds the named hbm.xml resource as a source: which performs the
    // classpath lookup and parses the XML
    sources.addResource( "org/hibernate/example/Order.hbm.xml" );

    // Adds the named JPA orm.xml resource as a source: which performs the
    // classpath lookup and parses the XML
    sources.addResource( "org/hibernate/example/Product.orm.xml" );

MetadataSources has many other methods as well; explore its API and javadocs for more information. Also, all methods on MetadataSources allow for chaining should you prefer that style.

Example 6. Configuring a MetadataSources with method chaining
    MetadataSources sources = new MetadataSources( standardRegistry )
            .addAnnotatedClass( MyEntity.class )
            .addAnnotatedClassName( "org.hibernate.example.Customer" )
            .addResource( "org/hibernate/example/Order.hbm.xml" )
            .addResource( "org/hibernate/example/Product.orm.xml" );

Once we have the sources of mapping information defined, we need to build the Metadata object. If you are ok with the default behavior in building the Metadata (or if relying on a MetadataBuilderInitializer - see below) then you can simply call MetadataSources#buildMetadata.

NOTE : Notice that a ServiceRegistry can be passed at a number of points in this bootstrapping process. The suggested approach is to build a StandardServiceRegistry yourself and pass that along to the MetadataSources constructor. From there, MetadataBuilder, Metadata, SessionFactoryBuilder and SessionFactory will all pick up that same StandardServiceRegistry.

However, if you wish to adjust the process of building Metadata from MetadataSources you will need to use the MetadataBuilder as obtained via MetadataSources#getMetadataBuilder. MetadataBuilder allows a lot of control over the Metadata building process. See its javadocs for full details.

Example 7. Building Metadata via MetadataBuilder
    MetadataBuilder metadataBuilder = sources.getMetadataBuilder();

    // Use the JPA-compliant implicit naming strategy
    metadataBuilder.applyImplicitNamingStrategy( ImplicitNamingStrategyJpaCompliantImpl.INSTANCE );

    // specify the schema name to use for tables, etc when none is explicitly specified
	metadataBuilder.applyImplicitSchemaName( "my_default_schema" );

	Metadata metadata =;

Building the SessionFactory

Much like we’ve discussed above, if you are ok with the default behavior of building a SessionFactory from a Metadata reference, you can simply call Metadata#buildSessionFactory. However, if you would like to adjust that building process you will need to use SessionFactoryBuilder as obtained via Metadata#getSessionFactoryBuilder. See the SessionFactoryBuilder javadocs for details of the control it allows over the SessionFactory building process.

Example 8. Building SessionFactory via SessionFactoryBuilder
    SessionFactoryBuilder sessionFactoryBuilder = metadata.getSessionFactoryBuilder();

    // Supply an SessionFactory-level Interceptor
    sessionFactoryBuilder.applyInterceptor( new MySessionFactoryInterceptor() );

    // Add a custom observer
    sessionFactoryBuilder.addSessionFactoryObservers( new MySessionFactoryObserver() );

    // Apply a CDI BeanManager (for JPA event listeners)
    sessionFactoryBuilder.applyBeanManager( getBeanManagerFromSomewhere() );

    SessionFactory sessionFactory =;

Putting It All Together

The bootstrapping API is quite flexible, but in most cases it makes the most sense to think of it as a 3 step process:

  1. Build the StandardServiceRegistry

  2. Build the Metadata

  3. Use those 2 things to build the SessionFactory

Example 9. Building SessionFactory via SessionFactoryBuilder
    StandardServiceRegistry standardRegistry = new StandardServiceRegistryBuilder()
            .configure( "org/hibernate/example/MyCfg.xml" )

    Metadata metadata = new MetadataSources( standardRegistry )
            .addAnnotatedClass( MyEntity.class )
            .addAnnotatedClassName( "org.hibernate.example.Customer" )
            .addResource( "org/hibernate/example/Order.hbm.xml" )
            .addResource( "org/hibernate/example/Product.orm.xml" )
            .applyImplicitNamingStrategy( ImplicitNamingStrategyJpaCompliantImpl.INSTANCE )

    SessionFactory sessionFactory = metadata.getSessionFactoryBuilder()
            .applyBeanManager( getBeanManagerFromSomewhere() )

Integration Points






SessionFactoryBuilderInitializer (todo)