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Chapter 9. The JBoss Server - A Quick Tour

9.1. Server Structure
9.2. Server Configurations
9.2.1. Server Configuration Directory Structure
9.2.2. The "default" Server Configuration File Set
9.2.3. The "all" Server Configuration File Set
9.2.4. EJB3 Services
9.3. Starting and Stopping the Server
9.3.1. Start the Server
9.3.2. Start the Server With Alternate Configuration
9.3.3. Using run.sh
9.3.4. Stopping the Server
9.3.5. Running as a Service under Microsoft Windows
9.4. The JMX Console
9.5. Hot-deployment of services in JBoss
9.6. Basic Configuration Issues
9.6.1. Bootstrap Configuration
9.6.2. Legacy Core Services
9.6.3. Logging Service
9.6.4. Security Service
9.6.5. Additional Services

Now that you’ve downloaded JBoss and have run the server for the first time, the next thing you will want to know is how the installation is laid out and what goes where. At first glance there seems to be a lot of stuff in there, and it’s not obvious what you need to look at and what you can safely ignore for the time being. To remedy that, we’ll explore the server directory structure, locations of the key configuration files, log files, deployment and so on. It’s worth familiarizing yourself with the layout at this stage as it will help you understand the JBoss service architecture so that you’ll be able to find your way around when it comes to deploying your own applications.

Fundamentally, the JBoss architecture consists of the microcontainer, bootstrap beans loaded into the micrcontainer, a collection of deployers for loading various deployment types, and various mcbean(-jboss-beans.xml) and legacy mbean(jboss-service.xml) deployments. This makes it easy to assemble different configurations and gives you the flexibility to tailor them to meet your requirements.

You don’t have to run a large, monolithic server all the time; you can remove the components you don’t need (which can also reduce the server startup time considerably) and you can also integrate additional services into JBoss by writing your own MBeans. You certainly do not need to do this to be able to run standard Java EE 5 applications though.

You don’t need a detailed understanding of the microcontainer to use JBoss, but it’s worth keeping a picture of this basic architecture in mind as it is central to the way JBoss works.

The JBoss Application Server ships with three different server configurations. Within the <JBoss_Home>/server directory, you will find five subdirectories: minimal, default, standard, all and web - one for each server configuration. Each of these configurations provide a different set of services. The default configuration is the one used if you don’t specify another one when starting up the server.

If you want to know which services are configured in each of these instances, the primary differences will be in the <JBoss_Home>/server/<instance-name>/deployers/ directory and also the services deployments in the <JBoss_Home>/server/<instance-name>/deploy directory. For example, the default profile deployers and deploy directory contents are:

[usr@localhost <JBoss_Home>]$ls server/default/deployers 
alias-deployers-jboss-beans.xml		jboss-aop-jboss5.deployer
bsh.deployer				jboss-jca.deployer
clustering-deployer-jboss-beans.xml		jbossweb.deployer
dependency-deployers-jboss-beans.xml	jbossws.deployer
directory-deployer-jboss-beans.xml	j	sr77-deployers-jboss-beans.xml
ear-deployer-jboss-beans.xml		metadata-deployer-jboss-beans.xml
ejb-deployer-jboss-beans.xml		seam.deployer
ejb3.deployer				security-deployer-jboss-beans.xml
[usr@localhost <JBoss_Home>]$ls server/default/deploy 
ROOT.war				jsr88-service.xml
cache-invalidation-service.xml	legacy-invokers-service.xml
ejb2-container-jboss-beans.xml	mail-ra.rar
ejb2-timer-service.xml		mail-service.xml
ejb3-connectors-jboss-beans.xml	management
ejb3-container-jboss-beans.xml	messaging
ejb3-interceptors-aop.xml		monitoring-service.xml
ejb3-timer-service.xml		profileservice-jboss-beans.xml
hdscanner-jboss-beans.xml		properties-service.xml
hsqldb-ds.xml			quartz-ra.rar
http-invoker.sar			remoting-jboss-beans.xml
jboss-local-jdbc.rar		schedule-manager-service.xml
jboss-xa-jdbc.rar			scheduler-service.xml
jbossweb.sar			security
jbossws.sar			sqlexception-service.xml
jca-jboss-beans.xml		transaction-jboss-beans.xml
jms-ra.rar			transaction-service.xml
jmx-console.war			uuid-key-generator.sar
jmx-invoker-service.xml		vfs-jboss-beans.xml

while the web profile deployers and deploy directory contents are:

[usr@localhost <JBoss_Home>]$ls server/web/deployers 
alias-deployers-jboss-beans.xml	jbossweb.deployer
ejb3.deployer			metadata-deployer-jboss-beans.xml
jboss-aop-jboss5.deployer		security-deployer-jboss-beans.xml
[usr@localhost <JBoss_Home>]$ls server/web/deployers 
ROOT.war				jbossweb.sar
ejb3-container-jboss-beans.xml	jca-jboss-beans.xml
hdscanner-jboss-beans.xml		jmx-console.war
hsqldb-ds.xml			jmx-invoker-service.xml
http-invoker.sar			security
jboss-local-jdbc.rar		transaction-jboss-beans.xml

The directory server configuration you’re using, is effectively the server root while JBoss is running. It contains all the code and configuration information for the services provided by the particular server configuration. It’s where the log output goes, and it’s where you deploy your applications. Table 9.1, “Server Configuration Directory Structure” shows the directories inside the server configuration directory (<JBoss_Home>/server/<instance-name>) and their functions.

Table 9.1. Server Configuration Directory Structure

Directory Description
conf The conf directory contains the bootstrap.xml bootstrap descriptor file for a given server configuration. This defines the core microcontainer beans that are fixed for the lifetime of the server.
data The data directory is available for use by services that want to store content in the file system. It holds persistent data for services intended to survive a server restart. Serveral JBoss services, such as the embedded Hypersonic database instance, store data here.
deploy The deploy directory contains the hot-deployable services (those which can be added to or removed from the running server). It also contains applications for the current server configuration. You deploy your application code by placing application packages (JAR, WAR and EAR files) in the deploy directory. The directory is constantly scanned for updates, and any modified components will be re-deployed automatically.
lib This directory contains JAR files (Java libraries that should not be hot deployed) needed by this server configuration. You can add required library files here for JDBC drivers etc. All JARs in this directory are loaded into the shared classpath at startup. Note that this directory only contains those jars unique to the server configuration. Jars common across the server configurations are now located in <JBoss_Home>/common/lib.
log This is where the log files are written. JBoss uses the Jakarta log4j package for logging and you can also use it directly in your own applications from within the server. This may be overridden through the conf/jboss-log4j.xml configuration file.
tmp The tmp directory is used for temporary storage by JBoss services. The deployer, for example, expands application archives in this directory.
work This directory is used by Tomcat for compilation of JSPs.

The "default" server configuration file set is located in the <JBoss_Home>/server/default directory. The following example illustrates a truncated directory structure of the jboss-as-<release> server configuration files:

[user@localhost <JBoss_Home>]$ tree
|-- bin
|-- client
|-- common
|   |-- lib
|   |   |-- antlr.jar
|   |   |-- ... many more jars
|-- docs
|   |-- dtd
|   |-- examples
|   |   |-- binding-manager
|   |   |   `-- sample-bindings.xml
|   |   |-- jca
|   |   |-- jms
|   |   |-- jmx
|   |   |-- netboot
|   |   |   `-- netboot.war
|   |   `-- varia
|   |       |-- deployment-service
|   |       |-- derby-plugin.jar
|   |       |-- entity-resolver-manager
|   |       |   `-- xmlresolver-service.xml
|   |       `-- jboss-bindings.xml
|   `-- schema
|-- lib
|   |-- commons-codec.jar
|   |-- commons-httpclient.jar
|   |-- commons-logging.jar
|   |-- concurrent.jar
|   |-- endorsed
|   |   |-- serializer.jar
|   |   |-- xalan.jar
|   |   `-- xercesImpl.jar
|   |-- getopt.jar
|   |-- jboss-common.jar
|   |-- jboss-jmx.jar
|   |-- jboss-system.jar
|   |-- jboss-xml-binding.jar
|   `-- log4j-boot.jar
`-- server
|-- all
|   |-- conf
|   |   |-- bootstrap/
|   |   |   |-- aop.xml
|   |   |   |-- bindings.xml
|   |   |   |-- aop.xml
|   |   |   |-- classloader.xml
|   |   |   |-- deployers.xml
|   |   |   |-- jmx.xml
|   |   |   |-- profile-repository.xml
|   |   |   |-- profile.xml
|   |   |   |-- vfs.xml
|   |   |-- bootstrap.xml
|   |   |-- bootstrap-norepo.xml
|   |   |-- jacorb.properties
|   |   |-- java.policy
|   |   |-- jax-ws-catalog.xml
|   |   |-- jboss-log4j.xml
|   |   |-- jboss-service.xml
|   |   |-- jbossjta-properties.xml
|   |   |-- jndi.properties
|   |   |-- login-config.xml
|   |   |-- props
|   |   |   |-- jbossws-roles.properties
|   |   |   |-- jbossws-users.properties
|   |   |   |-- jmx-console-roles.properties
|   |   |   `-- jmx-console-users.properties
|   |   |-- standardjboss.xml
|   |   |-- standardjbosscmp-jdbc.xml
|   |   `-- xmdesc
|   |-- deploy
|   |-- deploy-hasingleton
|   |   `-- jms
|   |-- deployers
|   `-- lib
|-- default
|   |-- conf
|   |   |-- bootstrap/
|   |   |   |-- aop.xml
|   |   |   |-- bindings.xml
|   |   |   |-- aop.xml
|   |   |   |-- classloader.xml
|   |   |   |-- deployers.xml
|   |   |   |-- jmx.xml
|   |   |   |-- profile-repository.xml
|   |   |   |-- profile.xml
|   |   |   |-- vfs.xml
|   |   |-- bootstrap.xml
|   |   |-- bootstrap-norepo.xml
|   |   |-- jacorb.properties
|   |   |-- java.policy
|   |   |-- jax-ws-catalog.xml
|   |   |-- jboss-log4j.xml
|   |   |-- jboss-service.xml
|   |   |-- jbossjta-properties.xml
|   |   |-- jndi.properties
|   |   |-- login-config.xml
|   |   |-- props
|   |   |   |-- jbossws-roles.properties
|   |   |   |-- jbossws-users.properties
|   |   |   |-- jmx-console-roles.properties
|   |   |   `-- jmx-console-users.properties
|   |   |-- standardjboss.xml
|   |   |-- standardjbosscmp-jdbc.xml
|   |   `-- xmdesc
|   |       |-- AttributePersistenceService-xmbean.xml
|   |       |-- ClientUserTransaction-xmbean.xml
|   |       |-- JNDIView-xmbean.xml
|   |       |-- Log4jService-xmbean.xml
|   |       |-- NamingBean-xmbean.xml
|   |       |-- NamingService-xmbean.xml
|   |       |-- TransactionManagerService-xmbean.xml
|   |       |-- org.jboss.deployment.JARDeployer-xmbean.xml
|   |       |-- org.jboss.deployment.MainDeployer-xmbean.xml
|   |       `-- org.jboss.deployment.SARDeployer-xmbean.xml
|   |-- data
|   |   |-- hypersonic
|   |   |-- jboss.identity
|   |   |-- tx-object-store
|   |   `-- xmbean-attrs
|   |-- deploy
|   |-- lib
|   |-- log
|   |   |-- boot.log
|   |   |-- server.log
|   |   `-- server.log.2008-08-09
|   |-- tmp
|   `-- work
|       `-- jboss.web
|           `-- localhost
`-- minimal
|-- conf
|   |-- bootstrap/
|   |-- bootstrap/aop.xml
|   |-- bootstrap/classloader.xml
|   |-- bootstrap/deployers.xml
|   |-- bootstrap/jmx.xml
|   |-- bootstrap/profile.xml
|   |-- bootstrap.xml
|   |-- jboss-log4j.xml
|   |-- jboss-service.xml
|   |-- jndi.properties
|   `-- xmdesc
|       |-- NamingBean-xmbean.xml
|       `-- NamingService-xmbean.xml
|-- deploy/
|-- deploy/hdscanner-jboss-beans.xml
|-- deployers/
`-- lib
|-- jboss-minimal.jar
|-- jnpserver.jar
`-- log4j.jar

The files in the conf directory are explained in the following table.

Table 9.2. Contents of "conf" directory

File Description
bootstrap.xml This is the bootstrap.xml file that defines which additional microcontainer deployments will be loaded as part of the bootstrap phase.
bootstrap/* This directory contains the microcontainer bootstrap descriptors that are referenced from the bootstrap.xml file.
jboss-service.xml jboss-service.xml legacy core mbeans that have yet to be ported to either bootstrap deployments, or deploy services. This file will go away in the near future.
jbossjta-properties.xml jbossjta-properties.xml specifies the JBossTS transaction manager default properties.
jndi.properties The jndi.properties file specifies the JNDI InitialContext properties that are used within the JBoss server when an InitialContext is created using the no-arg constructor.
java.policy A placeholder java security policy file that simply grants all permissions.
jboss-log4j.xml This file configures the Apache log4j framework category priorities and appenders used by the JBoss server code.
login-config.xml This file contains sample server side authentication configurations that are applicable when using JAAS based security.
props/* The props directory contains the users and roles property files for the jmx-console.
standardjboss.xml This file provides the default container configurations.
standardjbosscmp-jdbc.xml This file provides a default configuration file for the JBoss CMP engine.
xmdesc/*-mbean.xml The xmdesc directory contains XMBean descriptors for several services configured in the jboss-service.xml file.

The files in the deployers directory are explained in the following table.

Table 9.3. Contents of "deployers" directory

File Description
alias-deployers-jboss-beans.xml Deployers that know how to handle The know how to handle <alias> in <deployment> as true controller context. Meaning they will only get active/installed when their original is installed.
bsh.deployer This file configures the bean shell deployer, which deploys bean shell scripts as JBoss mbean services.
clustering-deployer-jboss-beans.xml Clustering-related deployers which add dependencies on needed clustering services to clustered EJB3, EJB2 beans and to distributable web applications.
dependency-deployers-jboss-beans.xml Deployers for aliases.txt, jboss-dependency.xml jboss-depedency.xml adds generic dependency on whatever. aliases.txt adds human-readable name for deployments, e.g. vfszip://home/blah/.../jboss-5.0.0.GA/server/default/deploy/some-long-name.ear aliased to ales-app.ear.
directory-deployer-jboss-beans.xml Adds legacy behavior for directories, handling its children as possible deployments. e.g. .sar's lib directory to treat its .jar files as deployments
ear-deployer-jboss-beans.xml JavaEE 5 enterprise application related deployers
ejb-deployer-jboss-beans.xml Legacy JavaEE 1.4 ejb jar related deployers
ejb3.deployer This is a deployer that supports JavaEE 5 ejb3, JPA, and application client deployments, .
hibernate-deployer-jboss-beans.xml Deployers for Hibernate -hibernate.xml descriptors, which are similar to Hibernate's .cfg.xml files.
jboss-aop-jboss5.deployer JBossAspectLibrary and base aspects. Why is this in deployers, dependencies?
jboss-jca.deployer jboss-jca.deployer description
jbossweb.deployer The JavaEE 5 servlet, JSF, JSP deployers.
jbossws.deployer The JavaEE 5 webservices endpoint deployers.
jsr77-deployers-jboss-beans.xml Deployers for creating the JSR77 MBeans from the JavaEE components.
metadata-deployer-jboss-beans.xml Deployers for processing the JavaEE metadata from xml, annotations.
seam.deployer Deployer providing integration support for JBoss Seam applications.
security-deployer-jboss-beans.xml Deployers for configuration the security layers of the JavaEE components.

The files in the deploy directory are explained in the following table.

Table 9.4. Contents of "deploy" directory

File Description
ROOT.war ROOT.war establishes the '/' root web application.
cache-invalidation-service.xml This is a service that allows for custom invalidation of the EJB caches via JMS notifications. It is disabled by default.
ejb2-container-jboss-beans.xml ejb2-container-jboss-beans.xml UserTransaction integration bean for the EJB2 containers.
ejb2-timer-service.xml ejb2-timer-service.xml contains the ejb timer service beans.
ejb3-connectors-jboss-beans.xml ejb3-connectors-jboss-beans.xml EJB3 remoting transport beans.
ejb3-container-jboss-beans.xml ejb3-container-jboss-beans.xml UserTransaction integration bean for the EJB3 containers.
ejb3-interceptors-aop.xml ejb3-interceptors-aop.xml defines the EJB3 container aspects.
ejb3-timer-service.xml ejb3-timer-service.xml an alternate quartz based timer service
hdscanner-jboss-beans.xml hdscanner-jboss-beans.xml the deploy directory hot deployment scanning bean
hsqldb-ds.xmlconfigures the Hypersonic embedded database service configuration file. It sets up the embedded database and related connection factories.
http-invoker.sarcontains the detached invoker that supports RMI over HTTP. It also contains the proxy bindings for accessing JNDI over HTTP.
jboss-local-jdbc.raris a JCA resource adaptor that implements the JCA ManagedConnectionFactory interface for JDBC drivers that support the DataSource interface but not JCA.
jboss-xa-jdbc.rarJCA resource adaptors for XA DataSources
jbossweb.sar an mbean service supporting TomcatDeployer with web application deployment service management.
jbossws.sarprovides JEE web services support.
jca-jboss-beans.xml jca-jboss-beans.xml is the application server implementation of the JCA specification. It provides the connection management facilities for integrating resource adaptors into the JBoss server.
jms-ra.rar jms-ra.rar JBoss JMS Resource Adapter
messaging/connection-factories-service.xml configures the DLQ, ExpiryQueue JMS connection factory
messaging/destinations-service.xml The message persistence store service
messaging/destinations-service.xml configures the DLQ, ExpiryQueue JMS destinations.
messaging/jms-ds.xml jms-ds.xml configures the JMSProviderLoader and JmsXA inflow resource adaptor connection factory binding.
messaging/legacy-service.xml legacy-service.xml configures the JMSProviderLoader and JmsXA inflow resource adaptor connection factory binding.
messaging/messaging-jboss-beans.xml The messaging-jboss-beans.xml file configures JMS security and management beans.
messaging/messaging-service.xml The messaging-service.xml file configures the core JBoss Messaging service.
messaging/remoting-bisocket-service.xml The remoting-bisocket-service.xml configures the JMS remoting service layer.
jmx-console.war The jmx-console.war directory provides the JMX Console. The JMX Console provides a simple web interface for managing the MBean server.
jmx-invoker-service.xml jmx-invoker-service.xml is an MBean service archive that exposes a subset of the JMX MBeanServer interface methods as an RMI interface to enable remote access to the JMX core functionality.
jmx-remoting.sar jmx-remoting.sar is a javax.management.remote implementation providing access to the JMX server.
legacy-invokers-service.xml legacy-invokers-service.xml the legacy detached jmx invoker remoting services.
jsr-88-service.xml jsr-88-service.xml provides the JSR 88 remote deployment service.
mail-ra.rar mail-ra.rar is a resource adaptor that provides a JavaMail connector.
mail-service.xml The mail-service.xml file is an MBean service descriptor that provides JavaMail sessions for use inside the JBoss server.
monitoring-service.xml The monitoring-service.xml file configures alert monitors like the console listener and email listener used by JMX notifications.
profileservice-jboss-beans.xml profileservice-jboss-beans.xml description
properties-service.xml The properties-service.xml file is an MBean service descriptor that allows for customization of the JavaBeans PropertyEditors as well as the definition of system properties.
quartz-ra.rar quartz-ra.rar is a resource adaptor for inflow of Quartz events
remoting-jboss-beans.xml remoting-jboss-beans.xml contains the unified invokers based on JBoss Remoting.
scheduler-service.xml The scheduler-service.xml and schedule-manager-service.xml files are MBean service descriptors that provide a scheduling type of service.
security/security-jboss-beans.xml security-jboss-beans.xml security domain related beans.
security/security-policies-jboss-beans.xml security-policies-jboss-beans.xml security authorization related beans for ejb and web authorization.
sqlexception-service.xml The sqlexception-service.xml file is an MBean service descriptor for the handling of vendor specific SQLExceptions.
transaction-jboss-beans.xml transaction-jboss-beans.xml JTA transaction manager related beans.
transaction-service.xml transaction-service.xml ClientUserTransaction proxy service configuration.
uuid-key-generator.sar The uuid-key-generator.sar service provides a UUID-based key generation facility.

Move to JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as/bin directory and execute the run.bat (for Windows) or run.sh (for Linux) script, as appropriate for your operating system.

For more information including setting up multiple JBoss server instances on one machine and hosting multiple domains with JBoss, please refer to the Administration and Configuration Guide. Some examples on binding are shipped in <JBOSS_HOME>/docs/examples/binding-manager/sample-bindings.xml.

On starting your server, your screen output should look like the following (accounting for installation directory differences) and contain no error or exception messages:

[user@mypc bin]$ ./run.sh 

  JBoss Bootstrap Environment

  JBOSS_HOME: /home/user/jboss-as-version/jboss-as

  JAVA: java

  JAVA_OPTS: -Dprogram.name=run.sh -server -Xms1503m -Xmx1503m -Dsun.rmi.dgc.client.
gcInterval=3600000 -Dsun.rmi.dgc.server.gcInterval=3600000 -Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=true

  CLASSPATH: /home/user/jboss-as-version/jboss-as/bin/run.jar


More options for the JBoss AS run script are discussed in Section 9.3.2, “Start the Server With Alternate Configuration” below.


Note that there is no "Server Started" message shown at the console when the server is started using the production profile, which is the default profile used when no other is specified. This message may be observed in the server.log file located in the server/production/log subdirectory.

You can configure the server to run as a service under Microsoft Windows, and configure it to start automatically if desired.

Download the JavaService package from http://forge.objectweb.org/projects/javaservice/.

Unzip the package and use the JBossInstall.bat file to install the JBoss service. You must set the JAVA_HOME and JBOSS_HOME environment variables to point to the jdk and jboss-as directories before running JBossInstall.bat. Run JBossInstall.bat with the following syntax:

JBossInstall.bat <depends> [-auto | -manual]

Where <depends> is the name of any service that the JBoss AS server depends on, such as the mysql database service.

Once the service is installed the server can be started by using the command net start JBoss, and stopped with the command net stop JBoss.

Please refer to the documentation included in the JavaService package for further information.

When the JBoss Server is running, you can get a live view of the server by going to the JMX console application at http://localhost:8080/jmx-console. You should see something similar to Figure 9.1, “View of the JMX Management Console Web Application”.

The JMX Console is the JBoss Management Console which provides a raw view of the JMX MBeans which make up the server. They can provide a lot of information about the running server and allow you to modify its configuration, start and stop components and so on.

For example, find the service=JNDIView link and click on it. This particular MBean provides a service to allow you to view the structure of the JNDI namespaces within the server. Now find the operation called list near the bottom of the MBean view page and click the invoke button. The operation returns a view of the current names bound into the JNDI tree, which is very useful when you start deploying your own applications and want to know why you can’t resolve a particular EJB name.

Look at some of the other MBeans and their listed operations; try changing some of the configuration attributes and see what happens. With a very few exceptions, none of the changes made through the console are persistent. The original configuration will be reloaded when you restart JBoss, so you can experiment freely without doing any permanent damage.

Hot-deployable services are those which can be added to or removed from the running server. These are placed in the JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as/server/<instance-name>/deploy directory. Let’s have a look at a practical example of hot-deployment of services in JBoss before we go on to look at server configuration issues in more detail.

Start JBoss if it isn’t already running and take a look at the server/production/deploy directory. Remove the mail-service.xml file and watch the output from the server:

13:10:05,235 INFO  [MailService] Mail service 'java:/Mail' removed from JNDI

Then replace the file and watch JBoss re-install the service:

13:58:54,331 INFO  [MailService] Mail Service bound to java:/Mail

This is hot-deployment in action.

Now that we have examined the JBoss server, we will take a look at some of the main configuration files and what they are used for. All paths are relative to the server configuration directory (server/default, for example).

In JBoss log4j is used for logging. If you are not familiar with the log4j package and would like to use it in your applications, you can read more about it at the Jakarta web site (http://jakarta.apache.org/log4j/).

Logging is controlled from a central conf/jboss-log4j.xml file. This file defines a set of appenders specifying the log files, what categories of messages should go there, the message format and the level of filtering. By default, JBoss produces output to both the console and a log file (log/server.log).

There are 6 basic log levels used: TRACE, DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR and FATAL. The logging threshold on the console is INFO, which means that you will see informational messages, warning messages and error messages on the console but not general debug messages. In contrast, there is no threshold set for the server.log file, so all generated logging messages will be logged there.

If things are going wrong and there doesn’t seem to be any useful information in the console, always check the server.log file to see if there are any debug messages which might help you to track down the problem. However, be aware that just because the logging threshold allows debug messages to be displayed, that doesn't mean that all of JBoss will produce detailed debug information for the log file. You will also have to boost the logging limits set for individual categories. Take the following category for example.

<!-- Limit JBoss categories to INFO --> 
<category name="org.jboss"> 
    <priority value="INFO"/> 

This limits the level of logging to INFO for all JBoss classes, apart from those which have more specific overrides provided. If you were to change this to DEBUG, it would produce much more detailed logging output.

As another example, let’s say you wanted to set the output from the container-managed persistence engine to DEBUG level and to redirect it to a separate file, cmp.log, in order to analyze the generated SQL commands. You would add the following code to the conf/jboss-log4j.xml file:

<appender name="CMP" class="org.jboss.logging.appender.RollingFileAppender"> 
    <errorHandler class="org.jboss.logging.util.OnlyOnceErrorHandler"/> 
    <param name="File" value="${jboss.server.home.dir}/log/cmp.log"/> 
    <param name="Append" value="false"/> 
    <param name="MaxFileSize" value="500KB"/> 
    <param name="MaxBackupIndex" value="1"/> 
    <layout class="org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout"> 
        <param name="ConversionPattern" value="%d %-5p [%c] %m%n"/> 
<category name="org.jboss.ejb.plugins.cmp"> 
    <priority value="DEBUG" /> 
    <appender-ref ref="CMP"/> 

This creates a new file appender and specifies that it should be used by the logger (or category) for the package org.jboss.ejb.plugins.cmp.

The file appender is set up to produce a new log file every day rather than producing a new one every time you restart the server or writing to a single file indefinitely. The current log file is cmp.log. Older files have the date they were written added to their filenames. Please note that the log directory also contains HTTP request logs which are produced by the web container.

The security domain information is stored in the file conf/login-config.xml as a list of named security domains, each of which specifies a number of JAAS [3] login modules which are used for authentication purposes in that domain. When you want to use security in an application, you specify the name of the domain you want to use in the application’s JBoss-specific deployment descriptors, jboss.xml (used in defining jboss specific configurations for an application) and/or jboss-web.xml (used in defining jboss for a Web application. We'll quickly look at how to do this to secure the JMX Console application which ships with JBoss.

Almost every aspect of the JBoss server can be controlled through the JMX Console, so it is important to make sure that, at the very least, the application is password protected. Otherwise, any remote user could completely control your server. To protect it, we will add a security domain to cover the application. This can be done in the jboss-web.xml file for the JMX Console, which can be found in deploy/jmx-console.war/WEB-INF/ directory. Uncomment the security-domain in that file, as shown below.


This links the security domain to the web application, but it doesn't tell the web application what security policy to enforce, what URLs are we trying to protect, and who is allowed to access them. To configure this, go to the web.xml file in the same directory and uncomment the security-constraint that is already there. This security constraint will require a valid user name and password for a user in the JBossAdmin group.

   A security constraint that restricts access to the HTML JMX console
   to users with the role JBossAdmin. Edit the roles to what you want and
   uncomment the WEB-INF/jboss-web.xml/security-domain element to enable
   secured access to the HTML JMX console.
            An example security config that only allows users with the
            role JBossAdmin to access the HTML JMX console web application

That's great, but where do the user names and passwords come from? They come from the jmx-console security domain we linked the application to. We have provided the configuration for this in the conf/login-config.xml.

<application-policy name="jmx-console">
        <login-module code="org.jboss.security.auth.spi.UsersRolesLoginModule"
            <module-option name="usersProperties">
            <module-option name="rolesProperties">

This configuration uses a simple file based security policy. The configuration files are found in the conf/props directory of your server configuration. The usernames and passwords are stored in the conf/props/jmx-console-users.properties file and take the form "username=password". To assign a user to the JBossAdmin group add "username=JBossAdmin" to the jmx-console-roles.properties file (additional roles on that username can be added comma separated). The existing file creates an admin user with the password admin. For security, please either remove the user or change the password to a stronger one.

JBoss will re-deploy the JMX Console whenever you update its web.xml. You can check the server console to verify that JBoss has seen your changes. If you have configured everything correctly and re-deployed the application, the next time you try to access the JMX Console, it will ask you for a name and password. [4]

The JMX Console isn't the only web based management interface to JBoss. There is also the Web Console. Although it's a Java applet, the corresponding web application can be secured in the same way as the JMX Console. The Web Console is in the file deploy/management/console-mgr.sar/web-console.war.. The only difference is that the Web Console is provided as a simple WAR file instead of using the exploded directory structure that the JMX Console did. The only real difference between the two is that editing the files inside the WAR file is a bit more cumbersome.

[3] The Java Authentication and Authorization Service. JBoss uses JAAS to provide pluggable authentication modules. You can use the ones that are provided or write your own if you have more specific requirements.

[4] Since the username and password are session variables in the web browser you may need to restart your browser to use the login dialog window.